Donating a Kidney

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Donating a Kidney

Topic Overview

Kidney transplantation is the best way known to save a person's life after he or she develops kidney failure. In the past, kidneys were only taken from living close relatives or from people who had recently died (cadavers). Transplants from living donors have a much better chance of success than those from cadaver donors. Also, the waiting time for a cadaver kidney can be as long as 4 years in the United States. For this reason, more people are making the decision to become kidney donors.

Who can become a kidney donor?

Almost anyone can become a kidney donor. A living donor is:

  • In good general health.
  • Free from diseases that can damage the organs, such as diabetes, uncontrolled high blood pressure, or cancer.
  • Willing to donate and free from mental health problems.
  • Usually older than age 18.
  • A match with the person receiving the kidney.

What steps should I take to become a kidney donor?

If you decide to become a kidney donor, samples of your blood will be drawn for testing, including your blood type and other genetic information (HLA type) to see how well you match the recipient. These tests will be repeated 7 to 10 days before the surgery if you decide to become a donor.

If your blood type and genetic information match that of the recipient, you will meet with social workers at the transplant facility to discuss other obligations. You will be given information, such as how much time you will need to take off from work and details of surgery and the recovery process, that will help you make an informed decision. Your meetings with the social work team will be strictly confidential.

When will I meet with a doctor?

After you have decided to become a kidney donor and your crossmatch results are known, you will be evaluated by a doctor, usually a nephrologist. Your evaluation will begin with a medical history and physical exam. You will have a series of lab tests to screen for kidney function, including chemistry screen, urinalysis, and urine tests for protein. You may also have a CT scan of the kidneys to evaluate your kidneys, urinary tract, and other structures in your pelvis.

What is involved in kidney transplant surgery?

You will be given a general anesthetic before your surgery. Until recently, the removal of a kidney required an 8 in. (20.3 cm) to 9 in. (22.9 cm) incision on one side of the body (flank). Now, laparoscopy is usually used to remove the donor kidney. Advantages of laparoscopic kidney removal include less pain, shorter hospital stays, a more rapid return to normal activities, and a smaller, less noticeable scar.

What are the risks of becoming a kidney donor?

Donating a kidney has not caused an increase in other health problems for donors. Organ donors continue to be carefully studied by many research groups in the United States. The risk of death following kidney donation is extremely rare.

What limitations will I have after I have donated a kidney?

Donating a kidney will not cause any limitations in your normal daily activities. After the recovery from your surgery, you will be able to resume all of your normal activities, including exercising and participating in sports.

Donating a kidney will not affect your ability to become pregnant, carry a child to term, or father a child.

Who pays my hospital costs?

In the United States, your medical costs will be covered by the recipient's medical insurance. Most insurance companies cover 100% of the medical costs of a transplant, including pretransplant evaluations and lab tests. If the recipient does not have medical insurance, your medical costs will be covered by Medicare.

More information

For more information on becoming a kidney donor, see:

  • Transweb at www.transweb.org.
  • National Kidney Foundation at www.kidney.org.
  • American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) at www.aakp.org.
  • United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) at www.donatelife.org or www.transplantliving.org.

Credits

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical ReviewerAnne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical ReviewerMitchell H. Rosner, MD - Nephrology
Last RevisedMay 7, 2012



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