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Patricia used the Healthwise Knowledgebase to save her own life.
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a nap instead. When she awoke, she felt even worse.
thought: Check the [Healthwise® Knowledgebase on]
the Internet," says Patricia. "I had almost every heart attack symptom
described in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase. I knew I
had to get to the hospital right away!"
Hospital tests confirmed
that Patricia had indeed had a heart attack, and the following Tuesday she had
triple-bypass heart surgery. Today, Patricia is back in the saddle, riding
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You can count on Susan Van Houten-Healthwise medical writer, grandmother, and former ER nurse.
"Helping people like Patricia make important medical
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The people at
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Unlike many of our
readers, Susan is an expert in developing health information and has been doing
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World-class heart doctor Robert Kloner, MD, PhD, is in your corner.
is one of 295 experts who review Healthwise information for accuracy and
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Dr. Kloner is known as one of America's leading heart
experts. For the past 30 years Dr. Kloner has taught at medical schools,
participated in major research projects, and contributed to medical journal
articles. He is professor of medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of
University of Southern California. He is also director of research at the Heart
Institute of Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles and an attending
cardiologist at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical
Dr. Kloner previously directed the Cardiac Research
Laboratory at Harvard Medical School. He has also edited 18 authoritative
"Good information is critical to good health and
good health care," says Dr. Kloner. "With easy-to-understand, reliable
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Healthwise benefits from readers' input to keep our content helpful. Send us your comments by contacting your sponsoring organization or by emailing Healthwise at email@example.com. If you contact Healthwise, you can expect a reply within about two weeks.
For answers to your specific health issues, contact your health professional. Or if you think you need care right away, call 911 or other emergency services.
Last updated: March 2011
The Healthwise Medical Review
Board is directed by our chief medical officer, Dr. Martin J. Gabica, and
our medical directors, Dr. Adam C. Husney and Dr. Kathleen Romito, all board-certified family medicine physicians. Dr. Catherine Serio provides
leadership on behavioral health issues for all Healthwise products. There is also a panel of board-certified associate medical directors who are involved in the planning and the regular and routine review of
content written by
Chief Medical Officer:Martin J. Gabica, MD, Family Medicine, Boise, Idaho
Medical Director:Adam C. Husney,
MD, Family Medicine, Boise,
Medical Director:Kathleen Romito, MD, Family Medicine, Boise, Idaho
Behavioral Health Specialist:Catherine Serio, PhD, Psychology, Boise, Idaho
Associate Medical Directors:
The Healthwise Medical Review Board also includes more than 200 health professionals and medical specialists who review Healthwise content from a specialist's point of view. Their credentials
include board certification, licensure, and/or registration; academic appointments at leading
medical schools; involvement in research; and publication in
peer-reviewed journals and medical textbooks. Most important, they share the
Healthwise commitment to empowering patients with reliable health information
and building strong patient-provider relationships. This encourages
partnerships in the decision-making process. With input from
these specialists, and with oversight by one of the Medical Directors or Associate Medical Directors, Healthwise medical writers develop health information based on
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Before approving reviewers, Healthwise verifies that they have current licenses, registrations, and certifications with state or national agencies. We also verify with bodies that certify in specialty areas, if appropriate. The reviewers must be in good standing with these organizations during the time they review Healthwise content. We check this standing at least every 3 years. In addition, reviewers agree to notify Healthwise immediately if the status of their licenses, registrations, or certifications changes.
physicians and health professionals are members of the Healthwise Medical Review Board:
John R. Hughes, MD, Addiction Psychiatry, Burlington, Vermont
James R. McKay, PhD, Addiction, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Peter Monti, PhD, Alcohol and Addiction, Providence, Rhode Island
Thomas B. Casale, MD, Omaha, Nebraska
Rohit K Katial, MD, Denver, Colorado
Lora J. Stewart, MD, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Denver, Colorado
John M. Freedman, MD, Anesthesiology, Santa Rosa, California
Stephen Fort, MD, MRCP,
FRCPC, Interventional Cardiology, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
Robert A. Kloner, MD, PhD, Los Angeles, California
Larry A. Latson, MD, Pediatric Cardiology and Critical Care, Cleveland, Ohio
John A. McPherson, MD, FACC, FSCAI, Interventional Cardiology, Nashville, Tennessee
John M. Miller, MD, Electrophysiology, Indianapolis, Indiana
Carl E. Orringer, MD, Clinical Lipidology, Cleveland, Ohio
Rakesh K. Pai,
MD, FACC, Electrophysiology, Boise,
George J. Philippides, MD,
FACC, Boston, Massachusetts
Christine Goertz, DC, PhD, Davenport, Iowa
Marc S. Micozzi, MD, PhD, Rockport, Massachusetts
Arden G. Christen, DDS, MSD, MA, FACD, Indianapolis, Indiana
William F. Hohlt, DDS, Orthodontics, Indianapolis, Indiana
Steven K. Patterson, BSc, DDS, MPH, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Bryan D. Tompson, DDS, FRCDC, Orthodontics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Randall D. Burr, MD, Boise, Idaho
Amy McMichael, MD,
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Alexander H. Murray, MD,
FRCPC, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Colleen Gobert, PhD, RD, Registered Dietitian, London, Ontario, Canada
Rhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE,
Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator, Boise, Idaho
Ruth Schneider, RD, MPH, Dietitian, Boise Idaho
William H. Blahd, Jr, MD, FACEP, New York, New York
Sean P. Bush, MD, FACEP, Envenomation
Specialist, Loma Linda, California
William M. Green, MD, FACEP, Sexual Abuse, Sacramento, California
David Messenger, BSc, MD, FRCPC, FCCP, Critical Care Medicine, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
H. Michael O' Connor, MD, MMEd, FRCPC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Alan C. Dalkin, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia
Jennifer Hone, MD, Santa Barbara, California
Lois Jovanovic, MD,
Gestational Diabetes, Santa Barbara, California
Matthew I. Kim,
MD, Boston, Massachusetts
David C.W. Lau, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
William S. Marras, PhD, CPE, Bioengineering and Ergonomics, Columbus, Ohio
Heather O. Chambliss, PhD, FACSM, Exercise Science, Memphis, Tennessee
Richard B. Kreider, PhD, FACSM, FASEP, Exercise Physiology, Waco, Texas
Thomas M. Bailey, MD, CCFP, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
MD, FAAFP, Boise, Idaho
Christine H. Fordyce, MD, Geriatrics, Seattle, Washington
Michael W. Foutz, MD, Kuna, Idaho
Martin J. Gabica, MD,
Adam C. Husney, MD, Boise, Idaho
Sarah Marshall, MD, Sacramento, California
MD, MPH, Sacramento, California
Rosalia Richardson, MD, Boise, Idaho
Kathleen Romito, MD, Boise, Idaho
Steven L. Schneider, MD, Boise, Idaho
David S. Smith, MD, West Bend, Wisconsin
Donald Sproule, MD, CM, CCFP, FCFP, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Andrew Swan, MD, CCFP, FCFP, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Peter J. Kahrilas, MD, Chicago, Illinois
Jerome B. Simon, MD, FRCPC, FACP, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Jerry S. Trier, MD, Boston, Massachusetts
Arvydas D. Vanagunas, MD,
FACP, FACG, Chicago, Illinois
Siobhan M. Dolan, MD, MPH, Medical Genetics, Bronx, New York
Carla J. Herman, MD, MPH, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Elizabeth A. Phelan, MD, MS, Seattle, Washington
Jeffrey S. Ginsberg, MD, FRCPC, Hematology, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Brian Leber, MDCM, FRCPC, Hematology, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Joseph F. O'Donnell, MD, Hanover, New Hampshire
Michael S. Rabin, MD, Medical Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts
Martin H. Steinberg, MD, Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts
Douglas A. Stewart, MD, FRCPC, Medical Oncology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Gregory T. Everson, MD, Transplant Hepatology, Englewood, Colorado
Steven L. Flamm, MD, Gastroenterology, Chicago, Illinois
W. Thomas London, MD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Robin L. Fainsinger, MB, ChB, LMCC, CCFP, Palliative Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Shelly R. Garone, MD, Roseville, California
William L. Atkinson, MD, MPH, Medical Epidemiology, Atlanta, Georgia
W. David Colby, IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC, Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases, London, Ontario, Canada
Christine Hahn, MD, Medical Epidemiology, Boise, Idaho
Jeanne Marrazzo, MD, MPH,
Prevention Epidemiology, Seattle, Washington
Peter Shalit, MD, PhD, Internal
Medicine, Seattle, Washington
Stanford T. Shulman, MD,
Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Chicago, Illinois
Devika Singh, MD,
MPH, Seattle, Washington
Dennis L. Stevens, MD, PhD, Boise, Idaho
Raymond A. Strikas, MD,
MPH, FACS, Atlanta, Georgia
Tina E. Bronner, MD, San Diego, California
Claudia A. Finkelstein, MD, Seattle, Washington
Carmen Lewis, MD, MPH, Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Brigid McCaw, MD, MPH, MS, FACP, Family Violence, Oakland, California
Brian O'Brien, MD, FRCPC, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Anne C. Poinier, MD, Boise, Idaho
E. Gregory Thompson, MD, Boise, Idaho
William M. Gilbert, MD, Sacramento, California
Kim E. Dow, MD, FRCPC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Jennifer Merchant, MD, Boise, Idaho
Michael Mallea, MD, Boise, Idaho
Mitchell H. Rosner, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia
Tushar J. Vachharajani, MD, FASN, FACP, Clemmons, North Carolina
David N. Alexander, MD, Los Angeles, California
Colin H. Chalk,
MD, CM, FRCPC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Barrie J. Hurwitz, MB, MRCP, FCP(SA), Durham, North Carolina
Karin M. Lindholm, DO, Boise, Idaho
Benjamin Natelson, MD, East Orange, New Jersey
Steven C. Schachter, MD, Boston, Massachusetts
Peter J. Whitehouse, MD, PhD, Cleveland, Ohio
G. Frederick Wooten Jr., MD, Charlottesville, Virginia
Kathryn Earhart, RN, CWOCN, Wound Ostomy Continence, Boise, Idaho
Mary Moe Robbins, RNC, IBCLC, Lactation Consultant, Newcastle, California
Rebecca H. Allen, MD, MPH, Providence, Rhode Island
Ross S. Berkowitz, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts
Philip D. Darney, MD, Reproductive Sciences, San Francisco, California
Divya Gupta, MD, Gynecologic Oncology New York, New York
Kevin Holcomb, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, New York, New York
Kirtly Jones, MD, Reproductive
Endocrinology, Salt Lake City, Utah
Femi Olatunbosun, MB, FRCSC, FACOG, Reproductive Endocrinology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Deborah A. Penava, MD, FRCSC, MPH,
London, Ontario, Canada
George F. Sawaya, MD, San Francisco, California
Peter M. Rabinowitz, MD, MPH, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
Steven T. Charles, MD, Vitreoretinal Surgery, Memphis, Tennessee
Carol L. Karp, MD, Miami, Florida
Christopher Joseph Rudnisky, MD, BMs, MPH, FRCSC, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Jill Ann Smith, MD,
Davide Bardana, MD, FRCSC, Sports Medicine, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Michael R. Baumgaertner, MD, Northford, Connecticut
Timothy Bhattacharyya, MD, Orthopaedic Trauma, Bethesda, Maryland
Freddie H. Fu, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Robert B. Keller, MD, Biddeford, Maine
Kenneth J. Koval, MD, Orthopaedic Trauma, Lebanon, New Hampshire
Patrick J. McMahon, MD, Sports Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
David Pichora, MD, FRCSC, Trauma, Hand and Microsurgery, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Herbert von Schroeder, MD, MSc, FRCSC, Hand and Microsurgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Donald R. Mintz, MD, FRCSC, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Charles M. Myer III, MD, Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, Ohio
Corinne L. Fligner, MD, Anatomic, Clinical and Forensic Pathology, Seattle, Washington
Thomas Emmett Francoeur, MDCM, CSPQ, FRCPC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Susan Kim, MD, Boise, Idaho
Georgeanna J. Klingensmith, MD, Pediatric Endocrinology, Aurora, Colorado
Stephen H. LaFranchi, MD, Pediatric
Endocrinology, Portland, Oregon
Chuck Norlin, MD, Salt Lake City, Utah
Louis Pellegrino, MD, Neurodevelopmental
Disabilities, Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Syracuse, New York
John Pope, MD, Pediatric Hospitalist, Phoenix, Arizona
Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH, Seattle, Washington
Margaret Hetherington, PharmD, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
PharmD, Clinical Pharmacist, Seattle, Washington
Margaret M. Doucette, DO, Wound Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, Boise, Idaho
Nancy E. Greenwald, MD, Boise, Idaho
Richard D. Zorowitz , MD, Baltimore, Maryland
David A. Fleckenstein, MPT, Boise, Idaho
Mary McVicars Heckel, PT, MAPT, CLT-LANA, CWS, Boise, Idaho
Mary Virginia Keely, MS, PT, OCS, FAAOMPT, Orthopaedic Physical Therapy, Aptos, California
Joan Rigg, PT, OCS, Orthopaedic Physical Therapy, Boise, Idaho
Keith A. Denkler, MD, Larkspur, California
Adam D. Schaffner, MD, FACS, Otolaryngology, New York, New York
Gavin W.G. Chalmers,
DPM, FACFAS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Barry L. Scurran,
DPM, Fremont, California
W. Stewart Agras, MD, FRCP©), Palo Alto, California
David A. Axelson, MD, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
David A. Brent, MD, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Evan Eyler, MD, MPH, Adolescent and Psychosomatic Medicine, Burlington, Vermont
Peter Hauser, MD, Portland, Oregon
Alfred J. Lewy, MD, PhD, Portland, Oregon
Steven Locke, MD, Psychosomatic Medicine and Behavioral Health, Wayland, Massachusetts
Miklos F. Losonczy, MD, PhD, East Orange, New Jersey
Fred R. Volkmar,
MD, Pediatric Psychiatry, New Haven, Connecticut
Myron F. Weiner, MD, Geriatric Psychiatry, Dallas, Texas
Lisa S. Weinstock, MD, Mount Kisco, New York
Sidney Zisook, MD, San Diego, California
Sue Barton, PhD, PsyD, Behavioral Health, Sacramento, California
Stephanie Bender-Kitz, PhD, Aging and Long-Term Care, Boise, Idaho
J. David Carroll, PhD, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Jessica Hamblen, PhD, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, White River Junction, Vermont
Catherine Serio, PhD, Behavioral Health, Boise, Idaho
PhD, Public Policy, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Stephen I. Sulzbacher, PhD, Clinical Psychology, Seattle, Washington
Edward Z. Tronick, PhD, Developmental Psychology, Boston, Massachusetts
Robert L. Cowie, MB, ChB, MD, MSc, FCP[SA], MFOM, Respiratory
Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Susanna A. McColley, MD,
Pediatric Pulmonology, Chicago, Illinois
Mark A. Rasmus, MD, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Boise, Idaho
R. Steven Tharratt, MD, FACP, FCCP, Pulmonology and Critical Care
Medicine, Toxicology, Sacramento, California
Ken Y. Yoneda, MD, Critical Care
Medicine, Sacramento, California
Myo Min Han, MD, Nuclear Medicine, Oakland, California
Howard B. Schaff, MD, Diagnostic Radiology, Boise, Idaho
Kenneth B. Sutherland, MD, FRCPC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Ernest L. Abel, PhD, Detroit, Michigan
Catherine O'Malley, RRT, Chicago, Illinois
Richa Dhawan, MD, Shreveport, Louisiana
Nancy Ann Shadick, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts
Stanford M. Shoor, MD, Palo Alto, California
Robert M. Kroll, PhD, Speech Pathology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Kenneth Bark, MD, General and Colorectal Surgery, Utica, Michigan
Jeffrey Gilbertson, MD, Vascular Surgery, Boise, Idaho
Mark G. Luciano, MD, Pediatric Neurosurgery, Cleveland, Ohio
C. Dale Mercer, MD, FRCSC, FACS, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Michael M. Murr, MD, Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tampa, Florida
Brent T. Shoji,
MD, Boston, Massachusetts
David C. Stuesse, MD, Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery, Boise, Idaho
David A. Szalay, MD, Vascular Surgery, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Ali Tavakkolizadeh, MD, Bariatric Surgery, Boston, MA
Brad W. Warner, MD, Pediatric
Surgery/Critical Care, St. Louis, Missouri
Christian G. Zimmerman, MD, FACS, MBA, Neurological Surgery, Boise, ID
MD, FRCS), Pediatric Urology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
J. Curtis Nickel, MD, FRCSC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Avery L. Seifert, MD, FACS, Boise, Idaho
Christopher G. Wood, MD, FACS, Houston, Texas
Last updated: February 2013
Karen Baker, MHS
Christine Calhoun, MPH
Kerry V. Cooke, BA
Jeannette Curtis, BS
Carrie Henley, BA
Patrick Kilby, BA
Katy Magee, MA
Judi Marsh, MBA
Susan Van Houten, RN, MBA
Carolyn Brzezicki, RN, MS
Judy Dundas, BA, BSN
Kathleen M. Ariss, MS
Bill Amos, JD
Nancy Bateman, BS
Deborah Dakins, BA
Eileen Ellig, BJ
Marianne Flagg, BA
Kathe Gallagher, MSW
Christopher Hess, BA
Paul Lehnert, MA
Ryan Powers, MFA
Ellie Rodgers, BA
Cynthia Tank, BA
Lila Havens, MA
Elizabeth Rodgers, BA
Colleen Cronin, MA
Bets Davis, MFA
Shannon Erstad, RPT, MBA, MPH
Maria G. Essig, MS
Debra Golonka, MPH
Sandy Jocoy, RN, BA
Jan Nissl, RN, BS
Robin Parks, MS, MSTC
Monica Rhodes, BA
Christine Maldonado, PhD
Terry Smith, PhD
Arlene Hull, MS, CES
Jennifer Adams, MLS
Doug Dana, BA
John Kubisiak, BS
Denele Ivins, BA
Tracy Landauer, BA
Pat Truman, MA
Terrina Vail, BA
Colleen Brennan, MA
Liisa Rogers, MSW, MLIS
Karri Alderson, MLIS
Bill Coe, BS
Jennifer Farnum, MLS
Steve Graepel, MS
Last updated: October 2011
The field of medicine changes constantly.
Each day headlines reveal new ways to diagnose, treat, or prevent health problems. Through a comprehensive topic development process, the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase content is regularly updated to keep pace with the changes in medicine and medical practice.
See What's New in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase for the current release.
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Last updated: February 2011
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updated: May 2009
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Last updated: October 22, 2009
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Last updated: August
Date adopted: August 2000
Healthwise is committed to producing quality health information for
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Healthwise is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit organization.
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Last updated: August 2007
adopted: August 2000
not medical advice This product is for informational purposes only. This information does not replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have questions regarding a medical condition, always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional. Developments in medical research may impact this information. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 911 immediately.
use of content This information is protected by copyright under United States and foreign laws. Title to this information remains with Healthwise or its suppliers. Any use of this information not expressly permitted by these Terms is a breach and may violate copyright, trademark, and other laws. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved to Healthwise and its suppliers.
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claims Any claims arising from your use of this product must be brought within one year from the date of the event giving rise to the action occurred. Remedies under these Terms are exclusive and are limited to those expressly provided for in these Terms.
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SELF-HELP CLEARINGHOUSE. By retrieving and/or utilizing information from the American Self-Help Clearinghouse database, you agree to hold harmless American Self-Help Clearinghouse, its owners, and employees from any and all liability arising directly or indirectly from your use of information contained in the database. You be the judge. The Self-Help Clearinghouse does not evaluate or rate the individual self-help groups, which are contained in the database. Therefore, Self-Help Clearinghouse's listing of a self-help group does not constitute an endorsement of that group. Neither does omission signify disapproval. We include groups in our database based upon a report of their organizations as being focused upon no-fee mutual aid; i.e., members helping one another. The use of any information is entirely the responsibility of the reader. You are the ultimate judge in deciding whether the group is appropriate to your needs. You can send for and review literature or call the phone contact. Self-help means more control, and more responsibility, in your hands.
NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE. Healthwise has an agreement with The National Cancer Institute ("NCI") for the use of the Physician Data Query (PDQ®) data files ("NCI Content") in which the following provisions must be met. You shall accommodate these provisions in its use of the Healthwise material.
i. PDQ is a registered trademark of the NCI and must be so referenced in all published material pertaining to PDQ files. The PDQ name must always be used in any public reference to the data files. Healthwise shall include the Software and you shall not alter or delete the notice making users aware at the point of initially entering the PDQ files that the source of the data provided is the NCI's PDQ files.
ii. Healthwise shall include the Software and you shall not alter or delete the following use restrictions (and any updates thereto) in the User License Agreement document and in all updated versions thereof and online in the system "help" message for use restrictions: "Some material in Physician Data Query (PDQ®) is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of PDQ are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publication, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference."
iii. You agree that, because use of the PDQ data for insurance reimbursement decisions is contrary to the nature of the database, which is designed as a research tool and not to reflect possible treatment options, you are not to use it for reimbursement decision purposes.
The information in the NCI content may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
NORD'S RARE DISEASE DATABASE. The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for information purposes only. This information is presented for further understanding that could lead to the prevention, treatment, and/or cure of rare disorders. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of his or her own personal physician(s). It is possible that the title of the topic is not the name you selected. Please check the SYNONYMS listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. The disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about the disorder.
NORD is a private charity. This information is meant to assist patients, their families, educators and health care providers in the understanding, possible prevention, treatment and/or cure of rare disorders. We advise you also to check the "Synonyms" listing to find alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s), and with the agencies listed in the "Resources" section for the most current information about this disorder.
Last updated: April 28, 2011
The third party drug information (the "Service"), that may be included in the Healthwise products is for use by United States and Canadian residents only. The Service is a service provided to you by Cerner Multum ("Multum"). The Service and the Healthwise products are separate products provided by separate entities.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided in the Service is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive.
The Service does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. The Service is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and provide consumers with drug specific information. Healthcare practitioners should use their professional judgment in using the information provided. The Service is not a substitute for the care provided by licensed healthcare practitioners and consumers are urged to consult with their healthcare practitioner in all instances. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient.
Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information the Service provides.
Disclaimer of Warranties
THE END-USER ACKNOWLEDGES THAT THE SERVICE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. EXCEPT FOR WARRANTIES WHICH MAY NOT BE DISCLAIMED AS A MATTER OF LAW, MULTUM MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES REGARDING THE ACCURACY OR NATURE OF THE CONTENT OF THE SERVICE, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
The END-USER acknowledges that updates to the Service are at the sole discretion of Multum. Multum makes no representations or warranties whatsoever, express or implied, with respect to the compatibility of the Service, or future releases thereof, with any computer hardware or software, nor does Multum represent or warrant the continuity of the features or the facilities provided by or through the Service as between various releases thereof.
Any warranties expressly provided herein do not apply if: (i) the END-USER alters, mishandles or improperly uses, stores or installs all, or any part, of the Service, (ii) the END-USER uses, stores or installs the Service on a computer system which fails to meet the specifications provided by Multum, or (iii) the breach of warranty arises out of or in connection with acts or omissions of persons other than Multum.
Assumption of Risk, Disclaimer of Liability, Indemnity
THE END-USER ASSUMES ALL RISK FOR SELECTION AND USE OF THE SERVICE AND CONTENT PROVIDED THEREON. MULTUM SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ERRORS, MISSTATEMENTS, INACCURACIES OR OMISSIONS REGARDING CONTENT DELIVERED THROUGH THE SERVICE OR ANY DELAYS IN OR INTERRUPTIONS OF SUCH DELIVERY.
THE END-USER ACKNOWLEDGES THAT MULTUM: (A) HAS NO CONTROL OF OR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE END-USER'S USE OF THE SERVICE OR CONTENT PROVIDED THEREON, (B) HAS NO KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIFIC OR UNIQUE CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH THE SERVICE OR CONTENT PROVIDED THEREON MAY BE USED BY THE END-USER, (C) UNDERTAKES NO OBLIGATION TO SUPPLEMENT OR UPDATE CONTENT OF THE SERVICE, AND (D) HAS NO LIABILITY TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY DATA OR INFORMATION INPUT ON THE SERVICE BY THE END-USER TO THE SERVICE.
MULTUM SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE END-USER AND PERSONS TREATED BY OR ON BEHALF OF THE END-USER) FOR, AND THE END-USER AGREES TO INDEMNIFY AND HOLD MULTUM HARMLESS FROM ANY CLAIMS, LAWSUITS, PROCEEDINGS, COSTS, ATTORNEY'S FEES, DAMAGES OR OTHER LOSSES (COLLECTIVELY, "LOSSES") ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO (A) THE END-USER'S USE OF THE SERVICE OR CONTENT PROVIDED THEREON OR ANY EQUIPMENT FURNISHED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH AND (B) ANY DATA OR INFORMATION INPUT ON THE SERVICE BY END-USER, IN ALL CASES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSSES FOR TORT, PERSONAL INJURY, MEDICAL MALPRACTICE OR PRODUCT LIABILITY. FURTHER, WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL MULTUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INDIRECT DAMAGES, INCLUDING DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS, OR DOWN TIME, EVEN IF MULTUM HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE INFORMATION CONTAINED WITHIN THE SERVICE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR USE BY PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS WHO RELY ON THEIR CLINICAL DISCRETION AND JUDGMENT IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT. THE INFORMATION CONTAINED WITHIN THE SERVICE IS NOT INTENDED TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ADVICE, DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT. AS BETWEEN THE END-USER AND MULTUM, THE END-USER HEREBY ASSUMES FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR INSURING THE APPROPRIATENESS OF USING AND RELYING UPON THE INFORMATION IN VIEW OF ALL ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES, INDICATIONS, AND CONTRAINDICATIONS.
Liability of Multum to the END-USERS
Under no circumstances shall Multum be liable to the END-USER or any other person for any direct, indirect, exemplary, special or consequential damages arising out of or relating to the END-USER's use of or inability to use the Service or the content of the Service provided thereon or any equipment furnished in connection therewith. Multum's total liabilities in connection with this Agreement, whether arising under contract or otherwise, are limited to the fees received by Multum under this Agreement specifically relating to the END-USER's service or product which is the subject of the claim.
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