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Measles is a very contagious
(easily spread) infection that causes a rash all over your body. It is also called rubeola or
The measles vaccine
protects against the illness. This vaccine is part of the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) and MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [chickenpox]) vaccines. Most children get the vaccine as part of their regular shots. This is why measles is rare in the U.S. and Canada.
Measles is caused by a
virus. It is spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or shares food or
drinks. The measles virus can travel through the air. This means that you can
get measles if you are near someone who has the virus even if that person
doesn't cough or sneeze directly on you.
You can spread the virus
to others from 4 days before the rash starts until 4 days after the rash
appeared. The virus is most often spread when people first get sick, before
they know they have it.
you have had measles, you can't get it again. Most people born before 1957 have
The first symptoms of
measles are like a bad cold—a high fever, a runny nose, sneezing, a sore
throat, and a hacking cough. The
lymph nodes in your neck may swell. You also may feel
very tired and have diarrhea and red, sore eyes. As these symptoms start to go
away, you will get red spots inside your mouth, followed by a
rash all over your body.
When adults get
measles, they usually feel worse than children who get it.
usually takes 8 to 12 days to get symptoms after you have been around someone
who has measles. This is called the incubation period.
Your doctor will ask
you about your symptoms and examine you. If your doctor suspects that you have
measles, he or she may do a blood test and/or viral culture.
If you think you have measles, call your doctor so he or
she can report the illness to the local health department.
Measles usually gets better with home care. Take medicines to lower your fever. Also, get plenty of rest and drink lots of
fluids. Stay away from other people as much as you can so that you don't spread
the disease. If your child has measles, keep him or her out of school
until at least 4 days after the rash first appeared. Keep your child out longer if he
or she is not feeling well. Your doctor may suggest vitamin A supplements if your child has measles.
Most people get better within 2 weeks. But measles can sometimes cause dangerous problems, such as lung infection (pneumonia) or brain swelling (encephalitis). In rare cases, it can even cause
If you have been exposed to
measles and you have not had the vaccine, you may be able to prevent the
infection by getting a shot of
immunoglobulin (IG) or the measles vaccine as soon as possible. Babies who are
younger than 12 months, pregnant women, and people who have
impaired immune systems that can't fight infection
may need to get IG if they are exposed to measles.
Getting your child vaccinated is important, because measles can sometimes
cause serious problems.
False claims in the news have made some parents concerned about a link between autism and vaccines. But studies have found no link between vaccines and autism.1
Measles is one of the most contagious diseases. Outbreaks can easily occur. For instance, a person from another country may have measles and not know it yet. If that person travels outside his or her own country, he or she could spread measles to people who are not immune. Also, if you travel to another country and you are not immune to measles, you may be at risk.
If you don't know whether you're immune to measles and you plan to travel, check with your doctor or local health clinic to see whether you should get the vaccine before you travel.
Learning about measles:
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers a
variety of educational materials about parenting,
general growth and development, immunizations, safety, disease prevention, and more. AAP guidelines for various conditions and links to other
organizations are also available.
This CDC website has information about vaccines and the diseases that can
be prevented by immunization. It includes the recommended
immunization schedules for children, teens, and adults. You can also find
information about vaccine side effects and safety, school and state
requirements, and immunization records. Interactive schedules are also
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It
has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and
diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website
offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing
age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can
sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
The National Network for Immunization Information provides
information on immunizations, including each of the recommended childhood
vaccines, the recommended childhood immunization schedule, tips on using the
World Wide Web as a source of immunization and health information, and links to
other helpful sites. You can also search for the vaccines that each state
requires before entry into school or day care.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the
United Nations. It has about 200 member states. WHO promotes technical
cooperation among nations on health issues, carries out programs to control and
eliminate disease, and strives to improve the quality of human life.
The Web site has information on many health topics, including health and
disease related to travel.
CitationsPeacock G, Yeargin-Allsopp M (2009). Autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and vaccines. Pediatric Annals, 38(1): 22–25.Other Works ConsultedAmerican Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Measles. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 29th ed., pp. 489–499. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine. MMWR, 59(03): 1–12. Also available online:Cherry JD (2009). Measles virus. In RD Feigin et al., eds., Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2427–2451. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.Elliman D, et al. (2009). Measles, mumps, and rubella: Prevention, search date July 2007. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.Gershon AA (2010). Measles virus (rubeola). In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2229–2236. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.Mason WH (2011). Measles. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 1069–1075. Philadelphia: Saunders.Perry RT, Orenstein WA (2006). Measles. In FD Burg et al., eds., Current Pediatric Therapy, 18th ed., pp. 786–790. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
March 14, 2011
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics & Thomas Emmett Francoeur, MD, MDCM, CSPQ, FRCPC - Pediatrics
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