Your mitral valve
controls blood flow on the left side of your heart. The valve opens and closes
with each heartbeat. It works like a one-way gate, letting blood flow from your
upper heart chamber to your lower chamber.
When you have mitral
valve prolapse (MVP) , the valve closes after blood flows through. But the valve
bulges backward a little. It looks like a tiny parachute or balloon as it
bulges. (See a picture of
mitral valve prolapse.)
Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart valve problem. It is more common in people who have a family history of this problem.
No. Mitral valve prolapse is not dangerous. It usually does not damage
your heart. You can live a normal life without changing your activities or how
But a few people with this condition develop another
problem. If the valve does not close tightly enough, blood can leak
(regurgitate) into the upper chamber. This is called
mitral valve regurgitation. The heart then has to work
harder to pump this extra blood. Over time, this can damage the heart.
You probably will not have
any symptoms from mitral valve prolapse. You may not even know you have it
until a doctor hears a "clicking" sound or a murmur when listening to your
But some people may feel that their heart is beating too
fast or "pounding." This feeling is called palpitations. Others may have brief
prolapse is caused by a physical change in the valve. Physical changes such as
thickening and abnormal shapes cause most of the cases of MVP. What causes
these physical changes is not known. A valve problem may be passed down through
cases, mitral valve prolapse is found during a regular doctor visit. If your
doctor hears a certain "click" or murmur sound when listening to your heart, he
or she may want you to have a test to check for mitral valve prolapse. This
test is called an
You will probably not
need treatment for mitral valve prolapse. Your doctor may want you to have regular exams every 3 to 5 years. A normal lifestyle and regular exercise are recommended for most
Learning about mitral valve prolapse:
Living with mitral valve prolapse:
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is caused by a physical change in the valve. Physical
changes such as thickening or abnormal shapes cause most of the cases of MVP.
What causes these physical changes is not known. MVP may be passed down through
Some people who have other inherited diseases
(ones that run in families) may also have MVP. But this link is not common.
Inherited diseases associated with MVP include:
Conditions that affect the mitral valve, connective tissue,
and heart muscle can cause mitral valve prolapse, but this is rare.
conditions, such as
osteogenesis imperfecta and
hyperthyroidism, are linked with mitral valve
For most people with
mitral valve prolapse (MVP), the effect on the heart
is minor, and they have no symptoms.
Some people with MVP have
shortness of breath, chest pain, or heart
palpitations. But it is not clear that these symptoms
are caused by MVP. Doctors don't know exactly why some people have these
In rare cases, people who develop severe
mitral valve regurgitation may have symptoms of
heart failure (such as shortness of breath, fluid
buildup, and fatigue) or symptoms of
arrhythmia (such as lightheadedness and
If someone in your family
mitral valve prolapse (MVP), you are more likely to
develop it yourself.
Inherited conditions can increase your risk
of MVP, but this is rare. These conditions include
Marfan's syndrome or
Any change in the
shape of the valve can increase your risk of MVP. These changes can result from
a birth (congenital) defect or a disease that affects the parts of the heart or
how the heart works.
Diseases that damage the mitral valve or affect the parts of the heart or
how the heart works may increase your risk of getting MVP. But this cause is
not common. Examples of these diseases include:
Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you have:
Call a doctor immediately if you
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and you have:
Call your doctor for an appointment if you have noticed new symptoms or an
increase in symptoms such as:
The following health professionals can evaluate symptoms that may
be related to mitral valve prolapse and can order the tests you may
Since most people with
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) do not have symptoms, MVP
is usually discovered during a routine health exam.
women who are only mildly affected by MVP, the condition may become
undetectable after middle age.
Your doctor may
suspect MVP if he or she hears a
click or murmur while listening to your heartbeat. This click or murmur happens because the mitral valve is not shaped normally. MVP
may be discovered if you have a test called an echocardiogram that is done for
If your doctor thinks you may have MVP, he or she
will ask if you have a family history of MVP or heart disease and will conduct
a physical exam to check for MVP. During the exam, he or
she will listen closely to your heart.
To confirm the diagnosis,
your doctor may request an echocardiogram if you haven't had one. Your doctor
may also evaluate you for other heart conditions.
echocardiogram is the most useful test for confirming
that you have mitral valve prolapse. It is also useful to rule out MVP. Echocardiograms require careful review by an experienced doctor, because MVP is
difficult to detect with this test. Some people who have MVP will have a normal
Regular echocardiograms are not needed if you do not have symptoms or
complications of MVP.
MVP is not recommended or necessary.
If you have MVP, you will have regular follow-up exams. How often you need these exams is based on whether you have complications like mitral valve regurgitation or
thickened valve flaps (leaflets). If you do not have symptoms or complications, your doctor may suggest an exam every 3 to 5
Most people with
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) do not have symptoms and
do not need treatment. Regular checkups every 3 to 5 years are usually all that
is required. A normal lifestyle and regular exercise are recommended for most
people who have MVP.1
If you have symptoms,
such as chest pain or
palpitations, you might take a beta-blocker medicine.
Complications of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) are not
common. Most people with MVP do not have significant problems and do not need
treatment. Complications of MVP develop mostly in people who have:
Complications of MVP include:
Most people with
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) have no symptoms and do
not need treatment for their condition. Your doctor will advise you to exercise
regularly, especially if you do not have symptoms. Controlling your weight and
blood pressure as well as eating a healthy diet are important. These healthy habits are part of a heart-healthy lifestyle.
A healthy lifestyle is also important if
complications of mitral valve prolapse. People who
palpitations can try lifestyle changes to help, such as limiting alcohol and caffeine, not smoking, and avoiding secondhand smoke.
If you do not have other heart problems or an artificial heart valve, antibiotics are not recommended before dental or medical procedures. In the past, antibiotics were given before certain procedures to people who had MVP to help prevent an infection in the heart called endocarditis. But MVP does not raise your risk enough that you need antibiotics for prevention.
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) usually do not need medicines, especially if they do not have
mitral valve regurgitation.
cannot correct bulging (prolapse) of the mitral valve or prevent many of the
complications that can develop. But medicine is
sometimes used to control symptoms.
Beta-blockers are used to relieve symptoms of palpitations or chest pain that might happen with mitral valve prolapse. Beta-blockers do not improve how the mitral valve works.
Visit the American Heart Association (AHA) website for information on
physical activity, diet, and various heart-related conditions. You can search for information on heart disease and stroke, share information with friends and family, and use tools to help you make heart-healthy goals and plans. Contact the AHA to find your
nearest local or state AHA group. The AHA provides brochures and information
about support groups and community programs, including Mended Hearts, a
nationwide organization whose members visit people with heart problems and
provide information and support.
CardioSmart is an online education and support program that can be your partner in heart health. This website engages, informs, and empowers people to take part in their own care and to work well with their health care teams. It has tools and resources to help you prevent, treat, and/or manage heart diseases.
You can set health and wellness goals and track your progress with online tools. You can track your weight, waist measurement, blood pressure, and activity. You can use calculators to help you find your body mass index (BMI) and check your risk for heart problems. You can search for a cardiologist. And you can find medicine information and prepare for your next appointment. Also, you can join online communities to connect with peers and take heart-healthy challenges.
CardioSmart was designed by cardiovascular professionals at the American College of Cardiology, a nonprofit medical society. Members include doctors, nurses, and surgeons.
The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
(NHLBI) information center offers information and publications about preventing
CitationsBonow RO, et al. (2008). 2008 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease). Circulation, 118(15):Other Works ConsultedAdams DH, et al. (2011). Mitral valve regurgitation. In V Fuster et al., eds., Hurst’s The Heart, 13th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1721–1737. New York: McGraw-Hill.Bonow RO, et al. (2008). 2008 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease). Circulation, 118(15):Bonow RO, Otto CM (2012). Management of valvular heart disease. In RO Bonow et al., ed., Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1530–1539. Philadelphia: Saunders.Otto CM, Bonow RO (2012). Valvular heart disease. In RO Bonow et al., eds., Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1468–1539. Philadelphia: Saunders.
January 23, 2013
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Rakesh K. Pai, MD, FACC - Cardiology, Electrophysiology
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