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Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (men only) in the United States in 2012:
Male breast cancer is rare. Less than 1% of all breast carcinomas occur in men.[3,4] The mean age at diagnosis is between 60 and 70 years, though men of all ages can be affected with the disease.
Predisposing risk factors  appear to include radiation exposure, estrogen administration, and diseases associated with hyperestrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome. Definite familial tendencies are evident with an increased incidence seen in men who have a number of female relatives with breast cancer. An increased risk of male breast cancer has been reported in families in which the BRCA2 mutation on chromosome 13q has been identified.[7,8]
The pathology is similar to that of female breast cancer, and infiltrating ductal cancer is the most common tumor type. Intraductal cancer has been described as well. Inflammatory carcinoma and Paget disease of the nipple have also been seen in men, but lobular carcinoma in situ has not. Lymph node involvement and the hematogenous pattern of spread are similar to those found in female breast cancer. The TNM staging system for male breast cancer is identical to the staging system for female breast cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)
Prognostic factors that have been evaluated include the size of the lesion and the presence or absence of lymph node involvement, both of which correlate well with prognosis.[5,10] Whether ploidy and S phase correlate with survival is uncertain. Estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor status and HER2/neu gene amplification should be reported.
Overall survival is similar to that of women with breast cancer. The impression that male breast cancer has a worse prognosis may stem from the tendency toward diagnosis at a later stage.[2,5,13]
Initial Surgical Management
Primary standard treatment is a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection.[1,2,3] Responses are generally similar to those seen in women with breast cancer. Breast conservation surgery with lumpectomy and radiation therapy has also been used and results have been similar to those seen in women with breast cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)
In men with node-negative tumors, adjuvant therapy should be considered on the same basis as for a woman with breast cancer since there is no evidence that response to therapy is different for men or women.
In men with node-positive tumors, both chemotherapy plus tamoxifen and other hormonal therapy have been used and can increase survival to the same extent as in women with breast cancer. Currently, no controlled studies have compared adjuvant treatment options. Approximately 85% of all male breast cancers are estrogen receptor–positive, and 70% of them are progesterone receptor–positive.[2,6] Response to hormone therapy correlates with presence of receptors. Hormonal therapy has been recommended in all receptor-positive patients.[1,2] Tamoxifen use, however, is associated with a high rate of treatment-limiting symptoms, such as hot flashes and impotence in male breast cancer patients. (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes and Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on these symptoms.) Responses are generally similar to those seen in women with breast cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)
Adjuvant chemotherapy regimens include:
Locally Recurrent Disease
Surgical excision or radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy is recommended. Responses are generally similar to those seen in women with breast cancer.[2,5] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)
Hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both have been used with some success. Initially, hormonal therapy is recommended.[2,5]
Hormonal modalities include:
Hormonal therapies may be used sequentially. Standard chemotherapy combinations of CMF and CAF are recommended after failure of hormonal therapy. Responses are generally similar to those seen in women with breast cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
General Information About Male Breast Cancer
Updated statistics with estimated new cancer cases and deaths for 2012 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).
Updated Burstein et al. as reference 9.
Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of male breast cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Reviewers and Updates
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:
Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.
The lead reviewer for Male Breast Cancer Treatment is:
Any comments or questions about the summary content should be submitted to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. Do not contact the individual Board Members with questions or comments about the summaries. Board members will not respond to individual inquiries.
Levels of Evidence
Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level-of-evidence designations.
Permission to Use This Summary
PDQ is a registered trademark. Although the content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text, it cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless it is presented in its entirety and is regularly updated. However, an author would be permitted to write a sentence such as "NCI's PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks succinctly: [include excerpt from the summary]."
The preferred citation for this PDQ summary is:
National Cancer Institute: PDQ® Male Breast Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/malebreast/HealthProfessional. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>.
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Last Revised: 2012-01-06
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