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Jaundice is a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes
appear yellow because of the buildup of a yellow-brown pigment called bilirubin
in the blood and skin.
Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of red blood cells. The
liver normally gets rid of bilirubin in bile (a fluid that helps the body
Excess amounts of bilirubin can build up because of rapid
destruction of red blood cells, liver diseases (such as hepatitis), blockage of
the bile ducts leading from the gallbladder to the small intestine, or other
problems. Bilirubin can be measured in the blood, where it is one indicator of
a person's liver function.
Other symptoms that may occur as a result of excess bilirubin
include dark urine, light-colored or whitish stools, and itching of the skin
If successful, treatment for the underlying cause of jaundice may
cause the skin, eyes, urine, and stools to return to their normal color.
July 6, 2011
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & W. Thomas London, MD - Hepatology
Jaundice in newborns (also called hyperbilirubinemia) is a
condition in which the skin and the whites of a baby's eyes appear yellow
because of a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow-brown
substance produced by the breakdown of red blood cells.
During pregnancy, the mother's liver gets rid of fetal bilirubin.
After birth, babies must eliminate bilirubin on their own. But many
newborns cannot get rid of bilirubin as fast as they make it. Bilirubin then
builds up in the baby's body, causing jaundice.
Although jaundice should be monitored, it usually does not require
medical treatment. Phototherapy, in which a baby is placed under special lights
or fiber-optic blankets, may be used if bilirubin levels reach a high enough
level. On rare occasions blood transfusions are needed.
In rare cases, jaundice in a newborn may be a sign of another
condition, such as infection, a digestive system problem, or blood-type
incompatibility with the mother.
May 11, 2012
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics & Chuck Norlin, MD - Pediatrics
A joint is the point at which two bones are connected. Many joints
provide support and stability and allow movement, although some, such as those
of the pelvis, are not movable.
Joints contain bones, cartilage, and a lining called synovium,
which produces a lubricating fluid. Most joints are held together by muscles,
tendons, and ligaments and are often cushioned by fluid-filled sacs called
There are several types of joints, including:
June 5, 2012
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine & Nancy Ann Shadick, MD, MPH - Internal Medicine, Rheumatology